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Multiple Myeloma

Multiple Myeloma Overview

Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a rare cancer that originates in plasma cells, essential components of the immune system responsible for producing antibodies.

Multiple myeloma develops when plasma cells in the bone marrow become cancerous and start multiplying uncontrollably. This results in the production of abnormal antibodies, called M proteins or paraproteins, which can lead to various health issues.

In terms of prevalence, multiple myeloma is relatively uncommon, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer cases and 10% of blood cancers. It is more frequently diagnosed in individuals over the age of 65.

Multiple Myeloma - Sheba Medical Center

Other Plasma Cell Disorders

Besides multiple myeloma, there are several other plasma cell disorders that share similarities but also have distinct characteristics. These disorders involve abnormalities in plasma cells and can impact various aspects of health. Here, we briefly explore some of these related conditions:

Light Chain Amyloidosis

Light chain amyloidosis, also known as AL amyloidosis, is a rare disorder in which abnormal protein fibers, called amyloids, build up in various organs and tissues. These amyloids are made up of light chains produced by plasma cells. As they accumulate, they can interfere with the normal function of affected organs, leading to a range of symptoms and complications.

Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS)

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a relatively common condition characterized by the presence of abnormal M proteins or monoclonal gammopathies in the blood. Unlike multiple myeloma, MGUS does not typically cause symptoms or require immediate treatment. However, individuals with MGUS are at an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma or related conditions over time.

Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

Smoldering multiple myeloma, also known as asymptomatic multiple myeloma, is an intermediate stage between MGUS and active multiple myeloma. In this condition, abnormal plasma cells are present in the bone marrow and produce M proteins, but the patient does not exhibit the typical symptoms of active multiple myeloma. Regular monitoring is essential to detect any progression to the active disease.

Solitary Plasmacytoma

Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare condition in which a single plasma cell tumor forms outside the bone marrow. These tumors can occur in various parts of the body, such as bones or soft tissues. While solitary plasmacytoma is less common than multiple myeloma, it requires prompt treatment to prevent potential complications.

Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by the overproduction of a specific protein called immunoglobulin M (IgM). This condition primarily affects the bone marrow and blood. It shares some features with multiple myeloma but is distinct in its symptoms and treatment.

Understanding these related plasma cell disorders is crucial for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. 

Multiple Myeloma Causes and Risk Factors

While the exact cause of multiple myeloma remains unknown, researchers have identified several risk factors that may contribute to the development of this condition. It's important to note that these risk factors increase the likelihood of developing MM but do not guarantee it. Here are some of the key factors associated with multiple myeloma:
  • ِAge: Multiple myeloma is primarily a disease of aging, with the majority of cases diagnosed in individuals over the age of 65. The risk increases with age, and it is relatively uncommon in younger individuals.
  • Gender: Men are slightly more likely to develop multiple myeloma than women.
  • Race and Ethnicity: Multiple myeloma is more prevalent among African Americans and less common among Asians.
  • Family history: Having a first-degree relative (such as a parent or sibling) with multiple myeloma or a related plasma cell disorder may increase the risk.
  • Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS):Individuals with MGUS are at an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma over time.
It's important to note that in many cases, multiple myeloma occurs without any identifiable cause or known risk factors. Researchers continue to study these factors to gain a better understanding of the disease's origins. Early detection and management of risk factors can be essential in reducing the likelihood of developing multiple myeloma or catching it in its early stages when treatment is most effective.

Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

Multiple myeloma is a complex condition that can manifest with a range of symptoms. It's important to note that not everyone with multiple myeloma will experience all of these symptoms, and their severity may vary. Some common symptoms include:
  • ِBruising: ِMultiple myeloma can affect the body's ability to produce normal blood cells, leading to easy bruising and prolonged bleeding.
  • ِConfusion: ِCognitive symptoms, including confusion and difficulty concentrating, can occur due to the impact of the disease on overall health.
  • ِDizziness: ِAnemia, a condition characterized by a reduced number of red blood cells, can lead to dizziness and lightheadedness.
  • ِFatigue:ِ Persistent fatigue is a common symptom and can result from anemia and the overall strain the disease places on the body.
  • ِFever: ِFever may occur due to infections, which are more common in individuals with multiple myeloma, as the disease weakens the immune system.
  • ِHeadaches: ِSome patients with MM may experience headaches as a result of anemia or other underlying factors.
  • ِLeg Weakness:ِ Weakness in legs can occur if the disease affects the bones or nerves.
  • ِLoss of Appetite:ِ Many individuals with multiple myeloma may experience a reduced appetite, which can contribute to weight loss.
  • ِNausea:ِ Nausea may be a side effect of certain treatments or can result from the overall impact of the disease on the body.
  • ِNosebleeds:ِ Multiple myeloma can lead to abnormal bleeding, including nosebleeds.
  • ِWeight Loss: ِUnintended weight loss is a common symptom and may be related to a decreased appetite and the overall effects of the disease.
It's crucial to recognize that these symptoms are not unique to multiple myeloma and can be associated with various other medical conditions. However, if you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms, especially if they are persistent or worsening, it is essential to seek medical evaluation and diagnosis.

Multiple Myeloma Complications

Multiple myeloma can lead to various complications that affect different systems of the body. Understanding these potential complications is essential for effective management and treatment. Some of the significant complications associated with multiple myeloma include:


  • Anemia: Multiple myeloma can reduce the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow, leading to anemia. Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
  • Bone Pain and Fractures: One of the main complications of multiple myeloma is bone involvement. Abnormal plasma cells can weaken the bones, making them more prone to fractures and cause bone pain.
  • Hypercalcemia: Multiple myeloma can disrupt the balance of calcium in the blood, leading to hypercalcemia. High levels of calcium can result in symptoms like excessive thirst, frequent urination, and kidney problems.
  • Hyperviscosity: In some cases, MM can lead to hyperviscosity syndrome, a condition where the blood becomes thicker and flows less efficiently. This can result in symptoms like blurred vision, dizziness and nosebleeds.
  • Infections: Multiple myeloma weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections. Pneumonia and other respiratory infections are common complications.
  • Kidney Function: Kidney problems can arise in multiple myeloma due to the accumulation of abnormal proteins that can damage the kidneys. This can lead to reduced kidney function or kidney failure.
  • Leukopenia: Multiple myeloma can cause a decrease in the number of white blood cells, known as leukopenia, which impairs the body’s ability to fight infections.
  • Thrombocytopenia: Abnormal plasma cells can interfere with the production of platelets, leading to thrombocytopenia, which increases the risk of bleeding and bruising.


These complications can significantly impact the quality of life of individuals with multiple myeloma. Proper management, early detection and prompt medical intervention are essential to mitigate these complications and improve overall well-being.

Multiple Myeloma Diagnosis

Diagnosing multiple myeloma is a precise and multidisciplinary process. It involves:

  • Medical History and Physical Examination: Gathering a comprehensive medical history and conducting a thorough physical examination to identify potential symptoms.
  • Blood and Urine Tests: These tests are pivotal for diagnosis. Blood tests, including a complete blood count (CBC) and serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), help detect anomalies in blood cell counts and the presence of abnormal proteins like M proteins. Urine tests are used to assess protein levels.
  • Bone Marrow Biopsy: A critical step, this procedure involves extracting a small bone marrow sample to confirm the presence of abnormal plasma cells.
  • Imaging: Techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, and PET scans evaluate bone involvement, fractures and complications.


Collaboration among hematologists, oncologists, radiologists and pathologists is vital for accurate diagnosis. Timely identification is crucial for initiating treatment promptly, improving outcomes for multiple myeloma patients.

Multiple Myeloma Stages

Staging is a crucial aspect of diagnosing and managing multiple myeloma. It allows healthcare professionals to determine the extent and severity of the disease, guiding treatment decisions and providing valuable prognostic information. Here’s an overview of the stages:


  • Stage I: This stage is characterized by low levels of beta-2 microglobulin (a protein indicative of tumor burden) and albumin in the blood, typically associated with a better prognosis.
  • Stage II: Intermediate levels of beta-2 microglobulin and albumin.
  • Stage III: High levels of beta-2 microglobulin and low levels of albumin, indicating a more advanced stage of multiple myeloma.


Staging is typically determined through a combination of blood tests, imaging studies, and bone marrow biopsies. The information gleaned from staging helps oncologists tailor treatment plans to the specific needs of each patient, with the aim of achieving the best possible outcomes.

Multiple Myeloma Treatment

The treatment of multiple myeloma is highly individualized, and the approach depends on factors such as the stage of the disease, the patient’s overall health, and specific characteristics of the cancer cells. Several treatment modalities may be employed, including:


  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves the use of powerful drugs to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. It is a vital treatment for MM and can be administered orally or intravenously.
  • Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy, or radiation therapy, uses high-energy beams of radiation to target and destroy cancer cells. It is frequently employed to alleviate bone pain and treat localized plasmacytomas.
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation: Bone marrow transplantation, including autologous (using the patient’s bone marrow) and allogeneic (using donor bone marrow) transplant options, may be considered for suitable candidates. This procedure aims to replace cancerous cells with healthy ones.
  • Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapies are drugs designed to specifically target the abnormal proteins or pathways involved in multiple myeloma. They are often used in combination with other treatments.
  • CAR T-Cell Therapy: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an innovative immunotherapy approach. It involves modifying a patient’s own T cells to target and destroy cancer cells.


Treatment plans are carefully crafted by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including hematologists, oncologists, and radiation oncologists. They consider the patient’s overall health, the stage of the disease, genetic factors and treatment goals. Some patients may receive a combination of these treatments in various phases of their care.

Multiple Myeloma Prevention

Preventing multiple myeloma is challenging because the exact cause of the disease is not well-understood, and there are many risk factors that are beyond an individual’s control. However, there are some strategies that may potentially reduce the risk or detect the disease at an earlier, more treatable stage:


  • Regular Screening: After the age of 50, individuals should consider regular medical checkups and screenings to monitor their health. Early detection can be key to identifying and managing multiple myeloma in its initial stages.
  • Healthy Diet: Maintaining a well-balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been linked to a reduced risk of cancer, including multiple myeloma. Calcium, found in dairy products and leafy greens, also plays a role in cancer prevention.
  • Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against hepatitis B and C can help reduce the risk of infections that may contribute to multiple myeloma development.
  • Safe Sex Practices: Practicing safer sex and taking precautions to prevent sexually transmitted infections can contribute to overall health and reduce potential risk factors for multiple myeloma.
  • Physical Activity: Regular physical activity, such as exercise and yoga, can strengthen the immune system. A strong immune system is better equipped to recognize and combat abnormal cells, potentially inhibiting the development of multiple myeloma and other cancers.
  • Healthy Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): Maintaining a healthy BMR, which reflects the body’s overall metabolism, can indirectly influence cancer risk. A balanced metabolic profile may reduce the likelihood of developing multiple myeloma.


It’s important to remember that while these preventive measures can lower the risk of MM, they do not offer absolute protection. Regular health checkups, a healthy lifestyle, and risk reduction strategies can, however, contribute to overall wellbeing and potentially reduce the likelihood of developing this condition.


Living with Multiple Myeloma

Living with multiple myeloma involves collaborating closely with the healthcare team and understanding and following the treatment plans. Effective management of pain and symptoms is essential, and seeking emotional support from professionals and support groups can greatly assist the patient’s journey. In addition, maintaining a balanced diet, staying physically active, and being attentive to any changes in their health are key.


Ensuring patients adhere to their medication schedule, prioritizing a good quality of life through enjoyable activities, exploring advance care planning options and staying informed about the latest research and treatment options are all integral aspects of living well with multiple myeloma.

Multiple Myeloma Prognosis

The prognosis for patients with multiple myeloma can vary widely and is influenced by several factors, including the stage of the disease, the patient’s overall health and the specific genetic characteristics of the cancer cells. Advances in treatment options have improved outcomes for many patients, with some achieving long-term remission. However, MM is a complex and often incurable disease, and it may require ongoing treatment and management. 


Regular medical check-ups and close collaboration with healthcare teams are essential for monitoring the disease’s progression and adjusting treatment plans accordingly. Despite the challenges, many individuals with multiple myeloma continue to lead fulfilling lives and maintain a positive outlook on their journey towards better health.


Multiple Myeloma Center at Sheba

In the journey against multiple myeloma, progress and hope persist. While facing complex challenges, individuals diagnosed with MM find support in dedicated healthcare teams and the embrace of loved ones. 


Sheba’s Hemato-Oncology Division, staffed by multidisciplinary experts, offers cutting-edge treatments, research, and compassionate care. With a focus on enhancing the quality of life, the future holds promise for those battling multiple myeloma. Together, we forge ahead, nurturing hope for better outcomes and brighter tomorrows.

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